Journals Cuadernos de Investigación Cuadernos de Investigación 10
Cuadernos de Investigación n°10

History of Salt in Precolombian and Colonial Ecuador PDF Print E-mail
Written by Ernesto Salazar   
Monday, 16 May 2011 08:24

The salt’s literature is relatively abundant, in both orders: technical (it’s use or operation) and cultural - symbolic (consumption). Ecuador’s literature production about this matter is very little, and so, the author has estimated useful to offer an overview of the item, using scattered bibliographic sources found in the historical record. Clearly, there is no archeological evidence of consumption and exploitation of salt, but the early colonial literature gives some data that could be extrapolated to the early columbian past. In any case, the reader can appreciate the importance that the mineral took for the indigenous people of the country, whom set settlements around the natural resources, trade areas and the reliance in salt as a “civilization” factor.

Key Words: Salt, Natural Resources, Exploitation, Trade, Civilization.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 17 May 2011 09:29
[Eco]Tourism A Developing Alternative for [Under]Development: A Comparative Study between the towns of San Clemente and El Recuerdo PDF Print E-mail
Written by Paola García Noboa   
Tuesday, 17 May 2011 09:39


In the last third of the XX century, tourism has been one of the most accelerated economic growth industries within the service area, in the world. it´s export global income is ranked fourth after fuels, chemicals and automotive products, and in some cases, the tourism has become the first exportation category of developing countries (WTO , 2008).

The emergence of new destinations in recent decades has encouraged the development of this industry thus between 1995 and 2007 the annual average grew to 4% (idem). Largely these new destinations are part of ecological proposals registered in the sustainable development discourse, designed as alternative (eco) touristic projects at small scale in underdeveloped areas with great biodiversity, whose purpose is to promote local development and nature conservation.

Considering this context, it is to analyze from an anthropological view, the succes posibilities of (eco)tourism in two setlements of Ecuador, for what this article has been divided into two parts: the first one is a short historical outline of the paradigm of development and it´s relationship to the tourism industry and into the second part, both study cases are exhibited: San Clemente, (an indigenous community of kichwa speakers, located in the province of Imbabura) and El Recuerdo (a montubio enclosure located in the province of Los Ríos) and its relationship with the historical discourse of development projects through some point of the project logic intervention whether by the state or non-governmental organizations.

Keywords: sustainable development; (eco)tourism; local development; nature; conservation.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 18 May 2011 04:27
Thinking about Nature during the Renaissance PDF Print E-mail
Written by Teodoro Bustamante   
Wednesday, 18 May 2011 04:53

Abstract :

This article presents the process by which the renaissance boosts two processes of development of western thought. In the one hand, the utopian dimension that is expressed through moro and erasmo and in the other hand the rational view. The seed of this outlook is located in rollewink. the article shows how the renaissance promise is lost by the power struggle and shows with it, that a stereotypical view of a nature unilateral thought, to be attributed to the west, is more complex, and to overcome the curr ent problems relationship with nature, it´s better to get back to these sources that are still to teach a lot, even in now days.

Keywords: Renaissance, Rationalism, Idealism, Utopia, Philosophy of nature.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 18 May 2011 05:00
Linguistic boundaries in the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador. Part one PDF Print E-mail
Written by Jorge Gómez Rendón   
Wednesday, 18 May 2011 08:50

“Toda la tierra ques dicho–la situada entre la costa de Anegadizos y la Punta de Santa Elena–e aun la que se dirá, es de diversas lenguas, tanto que cada población tiene su lengua, e aunque con los vecinos se entienden, es con mucha diversidad de vocablos mezclados con los otros comunes” (Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdez, 1855: 121)


The knowledge of the languages spoken in the ecuadorian pacific lowlands before the spanish conquest is both partial and biased. The scarcity of data and the lack of proper linguistic methods and tools of analysis as well as the presentation of linguistic data out of their social and historical context, have prevented us from making any progress in this area since the work by Jijón y Caamaño in the 1940s. This article corresponds to the first of three parts which focus on the linguistic situation of the ecuadorian pacific lowlands. It is based on a new systematization and evaluation of toponyms and anthroponyms available for this area and their comparison with first- and second-hand historic and archaeological information produced in the last decades. In addition, the article provides a critical approach to the few linguistic studies on the topic of pre-columbian languages and several methodological criteria for any study of toponymy and anthroponomy which see ks to overcome the shortcomings of previous practices in this area of research.

Keywords: Amerindian linguistics, Toponymy, Anthroponomy, Pre-columbian languages, Pacific lowlands.

Last Updated on Monday, 17 February 2014 03:39
Lithic artifacts production in the pre-ceramic occupation of the Gran Cacao site PDF Print E-mail
Written by Angelo Constantine   
Sunday, 22 May 2011 06:52


At the right bank of the alluvial plain of the Baba river, on the Buena Fé canton, in Los Rios province, Ecuador, we find the N3F1-15 archaeological site, called Gran Cacao. It has 5 different cultural occupations. The most ancient is also one of the few pre-ceramic evidences for this zone, dated at 8360± 40 B.P. It's cultural component demonstrates a lithic operative chain with evidence of the application of the “central place foraging” model, proposed by Orians and Pearson (1979). Among the artifacts found, there is a collection of stone cores made from local raw materials, as well as, a blades industry made of non local materials. carving techniques and artifact's preparation includes the use of fire to break stone cores, and the use of non local materials until their complete wear out.

Keywords: Gran Cacao site, Pre-ceramic period, Lithic operative chain, Lithic technology.

Last Updated on Sunday, 22 May 2011 10:48
Death on the Easel:Huayru and Paintings of Souls in Sigsig, Ecuador PDF Print E-mail
Written by Santiago Ordóñez Carpio   
Sunday, 22 May 2011 10:51


This essay analyzes the “paintings of souls”, a ritual use element linked to indigenous funeral practices in sigsig, southern ecuadorian highlands, and their relationship with the survival and transformation of the prehispanic, panandine ritual, called the huayru game. These painted canvas show – from a judeochristian perspective –, the path that a soul must go through to reach his / her salvation after death. They become into postmortem world “maps” witnessed by the dead spirit, who is called up by throwing the huayru dice. The colonial order threatened the huayru game to disappear, because it considered these as pagan practices that belonged to the “gentile” people, so the game became mimetized under a christian logic, trhought the incorporation of the “paintings of souls”, wich gave new meanings and life to this tradition, from those days to the present.

Keywords: Death, Andean religiosity, Funeral rites, Iconography.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 June 2011 07:17
Documentos y Testimonios: El Animero de Cahuasquí PDF Print E-mail
Written by Mónica Pacheco   
Monday, 23 May 2011 11:45
There are no translations available for the moment. Thanks for you comprehension.

“Un padre nuestro y un ave maría, por las benditas almas del purgatorio. Por amor a Dios”
Canto del animero. Cahuasquí, 2010

Nota introductoria

En el marco de la consultoría “Inventario de bienes culturales inmateriales del cantón Urcuquí, Provincia de Imbabura”, patrocinada por el Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural - INPC, se registró la manifestación “El Animero”, en la parroquia de Cahuasquí, en el mes de noviembre del 2010.

De acuerdo a la investigación, el animero es un intermediario seglar entre la vida y la muerte cuya misión es la de mantener vivo el recuerdo de quienes fallecieron, especialmente durante la época del año en que el Ecuador celebra la Fiesta de Finados. Recorre por las noches las calles de la parroquia de Cahuasquí y se detiene a llamar la atención de los moradores a la voz de “un Padre Nuestro y un Ave María por las benditas almas del purgatorio. Por amor a Dios”. Lleva consigo una campana de mano propiedad de la Iglesia local, con la que anticipa su paso y su rezo. Cada animero tiene un conjunto de oraciones cristianas, nos cuenta Luis Andrango, quien aprendió las suyas de un antiguo libro que encontró en un cajón de sus abuelos, hace ya varios años.

Los recorridos se realizan durante las noches de los 9 días anteriores al 2 de noviembre, es decir a partir del 25 de octubre. El ritual se inicia en el cementerio local, poco antes de llegada la media noche. El animero se dirige hacia la cruz central del lugar, donde se encuentra un altar, donde realiza su primera plegaria para invitar a las benditas almas del purgatorio a acompañarlo en su recorrido alrededor del pueblo y les pide protección para cumplir con su misión y conseguir las oraciones que las fortalecerán y las acercarán a Dios.

Como actividades preparatorias para el cumplimiento del trayecto, es necesario “estar limpio de mente y corazón”, por ello son indispensables los ritos católicos de confesión y comunión. Es por ello que el animero se mantiene en interlocución con la Iglesia de manera permanente.

Actualmente, la participación de los pobladores en esta manifestación, ha variado considerablemente. La tradición oral cuenta que lo acostumbrado era dejar ventanas y puertas abiertas para que las almas de los familiares puedan entrar en las casas y servirse aquello que la familia les dejaban sobre la mesa, generalmente los alimentos que más apreciaban en vida.

La creencia de que el animero hace su recorrido en compañía de las almitas que recoge del cementerio al iniciar su ritual, provocaba gran cautela en quienes lo presenciaban, por lo que evitaban mirarlo directamente mientras hacía su recorrido, se persignaban cuando lo escuchaban y elevaban sus oraciones conforme su invitación. Con esto, las almitas de la familia se quedaban tranquilas y accedían a ver la luz del rostro de Dios.

Durante el registro de la manifestación, se constató que estas prácticas se han perdido casi por completo, aunque en algunos hogares todavía subsiste la costumbre de invitar al animero a pasar a los domicilios donde se le pide que rece por las almas de la familia, a cambio de pan o dinero. En el rito, el animero pregunta “¿a la almita de quién?”, a lo que se le responde con un nombre determinado. Con esta información, el animero levanta su plegaria particular recordando a la persona indicada de acuerdo al nombre que llevaba en vida.

Varios temas para posterior investigación se ponen sobre el tapete ante el registro de esta manifestación: el análisis de la mixtura de cosmovisiones al respecto de la muerte, el rol del animero en la comunidad, su mantenimiento a lo largo de los años, la intermediación del ser humano entre la vida y la muerte, la existencia de manifestaciones similares en otros lugares del país, entre otros.

En tal sentido, se expone a continuación un extracto de la entrevista editada de Luis Andrango, de 69 años; el actual Animero de Cahuasquí:

Last Updated on Monday, 23 May 2011 12:10

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